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英语特色系列专题讲座之三

发布于:2018-1-29 9:23:36 点击量:

阅读理解专题之主旨大意类

高三年级 吕凤慧

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主旨大意题是高考阅读理解中考生失分最多的题目,因为该类试题不仅考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力,也对考生的归纳、概括能力提出了较高的要求,文章中没有明显的解题依据,需要考生从文章中提炼、抽取一些关键词、主干句进行加工概括,才能归纳出文章的主旨。

主旨大意题要求考生对全文的内容或某一段或某几段的内容加以合理的归纳,目的是检查对短文整体或某一或某几个段落的理解概括能力。它可以是文章或段落中心的陈述,也可以是文章标题的选择。有些文章尤其是说明文和议论文,往往有主题句表明中心思想。但有些文章,比如记叙文往往没有明确的主题句,需要考生在认真体会,明确作者的意图的基础上来概括文章的中心。此类题目可分为三大类,即标题归纳题、文章大意题和段落大意题。

了解主旨题的考查类型及提问形式

1.主题大意类常见的题干形式:

1) The first paragraph mainly tells us ____.

2) This passage chiefly deals with____________.

3) What is mainly discussed in the passage?

4) The main point of the passage is _____?

5) What is the subject discussed in the passage?

6What is the theme of the story?

7) What’s the topic of the article?

8) With what topic is the passage chiefly concerned?

2.标题类常见的题干形式:

8) The best title/ headline for this passage might be_______.

9) The text (passage) could be entitled ______________.

10) What is the best title for the passage?

11) Which of the following would be suitable as a title for the passage?

3. 写作目的选择类常见的题干形式:

12) What is the purpose of the passage ?  

13) The author writes this passage in order to ______.

14) The passage is meant to _____

※  主旨大意题解题技巧

【技巧一:主题句】

主题句 ( topic sentence)反映整个段落中心思想的句子叫主题句。主题句是全段的核心,统领全段,并且决定着全段的发展方向。

寻找主题句的方法

一、1) 文首找主题句     2) 文尾找主题句  3)文中找主题句

4) 首尾呼应展现主题句, 瞻前顾后归纳大意

5) 首段出现疑问句时,对该问题的解答就是文章主旨.

二、 特别关注文中出现的连接词(转折but/ however,in fact, actually;因果 so/ therefore,或一些常见但在文章中间出现有一定目的的词the study shows that…, for example,总结或结论的话常有thus, in short, to conclude, in conclusion), 因为这些词后面所阐述的往往就是主题句 。

Sample 1

People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a meal unless they have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast--foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French fries and a soft drink.

( 1 )主题句在段首 :一个主题句常常是一个段落的开头,其后的句子则是论证性细节。在论说文,科技文献和新闻报道中多采用这种格式。 

Sample 2

    Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.

( 2 )主题句也会出现在段尾

作者先摆出事实依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 即段落的主题。本段的中心思想在结尾句得到体现,它是此段内容的结论。

Sample 3

The office has always been a place to get ahead. Unfortunately, it is also a place where a lot of natural resources start to fall behind. Take a look around next time you’re at work. See how many lights are left on when people leave. See how much paper is being wasted. How much electricity is being used to run computers that are left on? Look at how much water is being wasted in the restrooms. And how much solid waste is being thrown out in the rubbish cans. We bet it’s a lot.

(3) 当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前一部分说明问题的一方面,导向主题句;后一部分从主题句出发,继续阐述问题的另一方面。 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展.

【技巧二:寻找高频词】

任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,因此,许多文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词。抓住了它,便容易抓住文章的中心。

Sample 4

Everyone can experience anger sometimes. But not everyone can control it properly.To some people, controlling anger seems like the hardest thing in the world to do.

Control these by talking to yourself in your own mind, when you experience unwanted feelings. By talking it over in your own head you can work out how you will best deal with the situation.

Anger control can also be achieved by communicating with others with honesty. You can effectively train yourself to respond to situations without getting annoyed about things. It is important to remember it is possible for everyone to get angry and therefore, controlling it is the real challenge.

Q: What is the best title of the passage ?

A. Not everyone can control anger.  

B. How to control anger.

C. Communicating with others is helpful.

D. Controlling anger is challenging.

文中重复出现的词为关键词,一般与主旨相关

【技巧三:概括段落主题】

当找不到全文的主题句, 而且段落的也没有主题句, 就要概括出段落主题,从而推导出文章的主旨

Sample 5

Mother’s Day was coming, a man stopped at a flower shop to order some flowers to be wired(电邮给) to his mother who lived two hundred miles away.

    As he got out of his car, he noticed a young girl sobbing (啜泣) . He asked her whatwas wrong with her and she replied, “I wanted to buy a red rose for my mother. But I only have seventy-five cents, and a rose costs two dollars.”The man smiled and said, “Come on in with me. I’ll buy you a rose.”After they went in, he bought a rose for the little girl and ordered flowers for his own mother.

    As they  were leaving, he offered to ride the girl home. She said, “Yes, please! But can you take me to my mother?” “To your mother?” the man was a little puzzled but didn’t say anything. She directed him to a cemetery(公墓), where she placed the rose on a freshly dug grave (新坟).

    The man was shocked and returned to the flower shop, canceled(取消) the wire order, picked up a bunch of flowers and drove the two hundred miles to his mother’s house.

Q: What is the passage mainly about?

A.   Moved by the girl, the man sent his mother the flowers himself on Mother’s Day.

B.   A man helped a girl to buy a flower for her mother.

C.   We should often help others.

D.   We should love our mothers.

Para1:  He planned to wire some roses for his mother .

Para2:  He helped a girl buy a flower for her mother .

Para3:  He found her flower was for her dead mother.

Para4:  He sent the flowers for his mother himself.

通过概括出段落主题,从而推导出文章的主旨A

 

排除干扰项

干扰项的特点

1.画蛇添足:即文中根本没有提到,把自己的观点强加给作者以充当主题,或在文中找不到语言依据的信息。

2.帽子太大:即选择的主题过于笼统,与细节脱节或文章缺乏充分的论证。

3.以偏概全:即只抓住了主题的一个侧面或一句没有展开论述的句子而误认为是主题。

正确选项的特点:不出现细节信息,不含过分肯定或绝对意义的词; 概括全文, 内容全面,含义深刻, 贴切准确。

Sample 6.

Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease (illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?

Q: What is the passage mainly about ?

 A. Ways of experimenting on smoking.画蛇添足

 B. Information about smoking 帽子太大

C. Smoking resulting in cancer. 以偏概全

D. Side effects of smoking.

归纳总结:

第一招:

可通过寻找主题句的方式归纳主旨大意,主题句可能在文章或段落开头,中间或结尾,所以我们可以扫读文章的首段和尾段或段落的首句和尾句,弄清文章或段落的结构搜索主题信息

第二招:

当找不到全文的主题句,抓住每段的主题句,和全文高频词,概括出全文中心思想。

第三招:

当找不到全文的主题句, 而且段落的也没有主题句, 就要概括出段落主题,从而推导出文章的主旨

最后,排除干扰项,得到正确选项:概括全文, 内容全面,含义深刻, 贴切准确。